--Dramatic event outshine Venus, visible even in daylight. There are cave drawings of these events which are 10,000 years old.
How often? ~100 years between, per galaxy
Chinese documented light curve compared to others.
Rediscovered by Messie M1
The Crab Nebula
An astronomers delight:
Emits radio, visible, and x-rays
Contains a pulsar at center this is the supernova/pulsar link
at maximum light Mv ~ -19 (109 1010 times Lsun)
type II is 2 times less
puts out 1049 ergs
Type I Spectra show broad features not understood
Type II Ejects far more mass than type I
Evolution to Supernova
Stellar Mass ranges
steps 3 and 5 may not occur often
Most supernovae come from shell burning
Source of all heavy elements
"We are all from the stars"
The Orion Skin Model
works up tp Fe +Ni à Fe-Ni core
When this process endes, Fe-Ni core collapses. Runaway burning explosive nucleosynthesis.
Generates trans Iron
1049 ergs visible
1051 ergs kinetic
~1054 ergs neutrinosß basic pressure source